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Herod returns to Judea, having been absent but three months. He raises an army. Hastens to relieve his family in the fortress of Massada, where they were besieged by Antigonus. Goes to Idumea and takes possession of a strong fortress by the name of Ressa, and then returns and lays siege to Jerusalem. Unable to take the city, he is obliged to decamp. Marches to Galilee, and endeavors to clear the country of robbers.

36. Herod renews his attacks on the robbers. Is obliged to let down his soldiers in chests by ropes over the mouth of the caves, and to fight them there. Having subdued the robbers, he marches to Samaria against Antigonus, but is obliged to return to Galilee, to quell the robbers.

The brother of Herod, Joseph, is surrounded and slain by the army of Antigonus, near Jericho.

36. Antony leads an army against the Parthians. Commits the government of Syria to Sosius, and returns to Italy.

The Roman Triumvirate continues, and Antony has assigned to him the affairs of the East.

35. Herod marches against Jerusalem, and lays siege again to the city.

He is married to Mariamne, to whom he had been betrothed four years. She was the daughter of Alexander, the son of king Aristobulus, by Alexandra, the daughter of Hyrcanus II., and was thus grand-daughter to both these brothers. Herod hoped by this marriage to reconcile the Jews to him; as the Asmonean family, from which she was descended, was in high favor with the Jews. She was a woman of uncommon beauty. Herod is joined by the Roman general, Sosius.

34. Jerusalem is taken by Herod, and Antigonus surrenders himself. He is treated with the greatest indignity. Is sent to Antioch, and beheaded by the command of Antony, and thus the reign of the Asmoneans, which had lasted 126 years, is ended, AND HEROD IS CONFIRMED IN THE KINGDOM.


34. Herod condemns to death all the members of the Sanhedrim, except Sameas and Pollio.

32. He appoints to the office of High Priest, Ananel of Babylon, a common priest, but a descendant of the ancient high priests.

He invites Hyrcanus II. to come to Jerusalem from Seleucia, where he had been kindly entertained by the Oriental Jews. Hyrcanus comes to Jerusalem, where he is treated by Herod with great respect.

32. Herod, at the earnest solicitations of Alexandra and Mariamne, deprives Ananel of the high priesthood, and confers it on Aristobulus, the brother of Mariamne, then only 17 years old. Herod is displeased with the interference of Alexandra in this business, and she and her son Aristobulus, attempt to escape to Cleopatra in Egypt. Aristobulus is drowned by order of Herod, in a lake near Jericho, on account of the affection showed for him by the people.

32. Antony comes into Syria, but goes then into Egypt, where he spends a whole year with Cleopatra. Lepidus and Octavianus come to an open rupture, and Lepidus retires as a private man, and the Roman power is left in the hands of Antony and Octavianus, afterwards Augustus.

31. Herod is sent for by Antony, to justify himself against the charge of having murdered Aristobulus. Gives his kingdom to the care of his uncle, Joseph. Charges him in case he is condemned, to put Mariamne to death, that she might not be possessed by Antony. Joseph informs her of the charge of Herod, and is imprisoned

on his return.

30. Ananel, High Priest the second time.

War between Augustus and Antony. Herod sides with Antony.

Antony gives to Cleopatra the most fertile part of Judea, but Herod agrees to pay her a yearly tribute of two hundred talents.

Cleopatra visits Herod at Jerusalem, and attempts, in vain, to entangle him in her


Antony makes war on Armenia. Appoints Cæsario, son of Julius Cæsar by Cleopatra, King of Egypt. Makes his eldest son, Alexander, King of Armenia and Parthia. 27. Herod makes war with the Arabians, at the command of Antony. Is defeated near Cana. A great earthquake in Judea.

27. THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM between Antony and Octavianus, which decides the destiny of the Roman world. Antony is defeated.

26. Antony and Cleopatra kill themselves.

26. Hyrcanus, then 80 years of age, attempts to escape, and Herod gladly embraces this opportunity to put him to death. Goes to Rome to pay court to Augustus, and to conciliate his favor. Places Mariamne and her mother, Alexandra, in the castle of Alexandrium, with orders to the keepers to put them to death if he is slain. Confesses to Augustus all that he had done for Antony, and is confirmed in his kingdom.

25. Augustus visits Judea, and is magnificently entertained by Herod.

24. Mariamne becomes irreconcilably opposed to Herod. Herod becomes jealous. Orders the most faithful servant of Mariamne to be put to the torture. Accuses Mariamne of adultery before judges of his own selection. She is condemned, in accordance with the wishes of Herod, and immediately executed. Herod, filled with remorse, loses all self-command.

23. Herod puts to death the sons of Babas, at the instigation of her sister Salome, and thus cuts off the last remains of the Asmonean race. They were the descenc ants of Hyrcanus, and Herod now felt himself secure from any claimant to the throne. 21. Plague and famine in Judea. Herod lays the foundation of a palace on Mount Zion.

He marries Mariamne, the daughter of the priest Simon.

21. Augustus is made Emperor. He was the nephew of Julius Cæsar.

19. Herod builds Cæsarea in Palestine, and fortifies Samaria. Sends to Rome his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus, whom he had by the murdered Mariamne. Agrippa, the favorite of Augustus, is made Governor of the East.

18. Augustus visits Antioch, and at the request of Herod, raises his brother Pheroras to the dignity of a Tetrarch.

17. Agrippa comes into Asia. Herod visits him.

16. Herod, in order to conciliate the affection of the Jews, resolves on rebuilding the Temple in a style of much greater magnificence than the former Temple. Two years are spent in collecting materials. The old Temple is taken down by degrees as fast as its parts could be replaced by the new building. The main body of the edifice completed in nine years and an half. But the whole not completed until long after the death of Herod. (Notes on John ii. 20.)

13. Herod goes to Rome. Takes his two sons with him on his return, and marries them; the one to a daughter of the King of Cappadocia, and the other to a daughter of his sister Salome.

12. Agrippa visits the East, and is magnificently entertained by Herod, at Jerusa


8. Herod goes to Rome, and accuses his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus, of a design against his life. To this he is instigated principally by his brother, Pheroras, and his sister Salome, on account of their hatred of Mariamne.

7. Cæsarea, a city built in honor of Augustus, is dedicated with great pomp. Herod is finally reconciled to his sons by the influence of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, whose daughter Alexander had married. He goes into Arabia, takes the fortress of Repta, and puts the garrison to the sword.

5. He breaks open the tomb of David, and takes out a large amount of treasures. 3. The suspicions of Herod are again excited against his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. They are arrested, tried, condemned, and sent to Samaria, where they are strangled by order of their father.

1. Pheroras, the brother of Herod, and Antipater the son of Herod, form a conspiracy against his life. The plan is to poison him. Pheroras is taken sick and dies Antipater at the time is in Rome. The whole plot is discovered by the widow of Pheroras, and Herod divorces his wife, Mariamne, daughter of Simon, for being an accomplice, strikes the name of Antipater from his will, deposes Simon from the High Priesthood, and puts many persons to death. All this is kept secret from Antipater at Rome, and Herod sends for him to come home, with many expressions of his paternal love.

Augustus the Roman Emperor. The Temple of Janus shut, as a sign of universa. peace.

The birth of Christ four years before the common Christian era. That era began to be used about A. D. 526, being first employed by Dionysius, and is supposed to have been placed about four years too late. Some make the difference two, others three, four, five, and even eight years. He was born at the commencement of the

last year of the reign of Herod, or at the close of the year preceding. Herod had been king 37 years; Augustus emperor about 16.

Antipater returns from Rome. Is accused and convicted of a design to murder Herod, and is put to death by his order. The flight into Egypt. Matth. ii. 13—15. The murder of the Innocents at Bethlehem. Matth. ii. 16.

Herod dies at Jericho, five days after his son Antipater, in the 70th year of his age, of a most loathsome and painful disease. He called around him the principal men of the nation, and charged his sister Salome and her husband to confine them in the hippodrome, and to massacre them as soon as he had breathed his last, that the ews might have some cause to mourn when he died.

By the will of Herod, Archelaus is appointed his successor in the kingdom; Herod Antipas made Tetrarch of Perea and Galilee; and Philip, Tetrarch of Batanea, Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, and Paneas. To his sister Salome, he gives Jamnia, and some other places. As soon as Herod was dead, his sister Salome dismissed all the Jewish nobles who had been confined in the hippodrome, and who had been ordered to be put to death.


2-11. ARCHELAUS. Goes to Rome to obtain the confirmation of his title as King from Augustus. The decision of Augustus is delayed. Archelaus takes the High Priesthood from Joazer, and gives it to Eleazer.

Great tumult in Judea. The nation in arms against the Roman power. The Temple is attacked, but the Romans are repulsed.

Augustus confirms Archelaus in the kingdom, but with the title of Ethnarch, instead of King. Archelaus rebuilds Jericho. Is accused by the Jews and Samaritans of tyranny, before Augustus, and is banished to Vienne, in Gaul, in the tenth year of his reign.

A. D. 12-26. JUDEA A ROMAN PROVINCE. In the year 12 A. D., Augustus united Judea and Samaria to Syria, and appointed Publius Sulpitius Quirinus (Cyrenius, Luke ii. 2,) Governor of the Province. At the same time Coponius is made Procurator of Judea.

14. The Temple at Jerusalem is polluted by some Samaritans, who entered it by night, and strewed there the bones of dead men.

17. Augustus dies at Rola in Campania, in the 76th year of his age, and the 57th year of his reign. He is succeeded by Tiberius, the son of his wife, Julia.

18. Valerius Gratus made Procurator of Judea, by Tiberius. He deposes Ananus, and makes Ismael High Priest. Afterwards he gives the office to Eleazer, son of Ananus; then to Simeon; and at last to Joseph, called in the New Testament Caiaphas.

Herod Antipas builds the city of Tiberias.


He attempts to set up Roman colors and ensigns in Jerusalem, but is opposed by the Jews.

29. John the Baptist begins to preach.

30. Jesus is baptized by John.

Tiberius banishes all who professed the Jewish religion, from Rome.

About this time hostilities existed between Herod Antipas, and Aretas, King of Arabia. Herod Antipas had married a daughter of Aretas. On his way to Rome, he saw and fell in love with Herodias, the wife of his brother, and agreed to marry her, and to put away the daughter of Aretas. She hearing this, fled to her father, and the consequence was a war, in which Herod was defeated, and his army dispersed. 30. John the Baptist declares this marriage unlawful, and is imprisoned by Herod. 31. John the Baptist in prison. Sends a deputation to Jesus, to know if he was the Messiah.

32. Is slain by the order of Herod, at the instigation of Herodias.

33. Jesus is crucified on Friday, April 3. Supposed to have been at about three o'clock, P. M.

34. Stephen put to death. Paul converted on his way to Damascus.

35. Agrippa the younger being involved in debt, resolves to go to Rome. Attaches himself to the party of Caius, and incurs the displeasure of Tiberius. This year died Philip, Tetrarch of Trachonitis, &c., a son of Herod the Great. He was mild and equitable in his government, and had ruled 37 years. The countries over which he and presided, were at his death united to the province of Syria.

37. Tiberius dies, a most profligate and abandoned man. He is succeeded by Caius Caligula.

37. Pilate is recalled by Caligula, and banished to Vienne, in Gaul, where he is said to have put an end to his own life.

38-45. AGRIPPA THE YOUNGER, KING OF THE JEWS. He was the son of Aristobulus, and grandson of Mariamne. Shortly before the death of Herod the Great, (his grand father,) he goes to Rome, squanders his property there, and is reduced to want, Goes to Idumea, and resolves to commit suicide. Persuaded to abandon his plan by his wife. Obtains the government from Tiberius. Is accused by his half-brother, Aristobulus, and goes again to Rome. Is favorably received by Tiberius. Is accused, however, of having made a treasonable remark respecting Tiberius, and imprisoned till the death of that emperor. Is released by Caligula from prison, and made King of Gaulanitis, Batanea, and Trachonitis.

42. Herod Antipas, at the instigation of Agrippa, is banished to Lyons, and his Tetrarchy given to King Agrippa.

Caligula orders Petronius to place his statue in the Temple at Jerusalem. It is delayed at the instance of Agrippa.

42. Caligula is assassinated at Rome, and succeeded by Claudius.

42. Agrippa is raised by Claudius to the rank of Consul; Samaria and Judea are given him, and thus he obtains the entire kingdom of Herod the Great.

42. Agrippa arrives at Jerusalem.

43. Deprives the High Priest, Matthias, of the priesthood, and bestows it on Elio


Causes the Apostle James, the Greater, to be put to death,-Acts xii. 1,—and imprisons Peter. Soon afterwards dies at Cæsarea, in great misery. Acts xii. 21-23. A famine at Rome.

45. Cuspius Fadus is sent into Judea as Governor or Procurator. He continues in the office two years.

A great famine in Judea.

Fadus demands that the vestments of the High Priest should be placed under Roman custody. Longinus comes to Jerusalem to enforce this order.

Claudius places Herod, the brother of the deceased Agrippa, over the Temple and the Treasury.

A celebrated false Messiah appears. He persuades the people to follow him to the Jordan. Promises to stop the river by a word, and to lead them over on dry ground Is pursued by the Roman cavalry, and beheaded.

A second famine in the reign of Claudius. This was in Palestine. Acts xi. 28. 46. Fadus is recalled. Tiberius, an apostate Jew, is made Governor of Judea in his place.

47. Claudius takes away the authority of Herod, and gives it to Agrippa, the son of King Agrippa, who died at Cæsarea. This was the Agrippa before whom Paul afterwards appeared. Acts xxvi.

47. Tiberius is recalled, and Cumanus is made Procurator of Judea. Violent disturbances in Judea.

53. Cumanus is recalled and expelled from Rome. Claudius appoints FELIX Procurator of Judea. Felix was a freedman of Claudius. Claudius gives to Agrippa the Tetrarchy which had formerly belonged to Philip,-Gaulanitis, Batanea, and Tra chonitis.

Claudius expels the Jews from Rome, because, in expectation of the Messiah, they are constantly exc ting disturbances.

55. Claudius dies, being poisoned by the Empress Agrippina, the mother of Nero Nero succeeds him. Nero soon puts many persons to death, and among others his own mother.

56. Nero gives to Agrippa the cities Tiberias, Tarichæa, Abila, and Julias, and the districts belonging to them.

Felix captures a number of robbers and crucifies them.

The Sicarii, or robbers with short swords, appear and abound in Judea. Felix hires one of them to assassinate the High Priest, Jonathan. Many false prophets appear in Judea.

58. Paul goes into Judea to carry contributions. Is seized in the Temple at Jerusalem, and sent to Cæsarea. Ishmael made High Priest. Paul makes his defence before Felix, (Acts xxiv.,) at Cæsarea. Is imprisoned two years.


PORCIUS FESTUS MADE Governor OF JUDEA. Felix is accused at Rome. Paul appeals to the Emperor. Makes his speech before Agrippa, (Acts xxvi.,) and Is put on shipboard to be sent to Rome. Is shipwrecked at Malta.

Festus finds the country overrun with robbers. A false Messiah is taken and slain Agrippa at Jerusalem builds a high apartment in the palace of Herod, by which he can overlook all that is done in the Temple. The Jews build a high wall on the west side of the Temple, to intercept his view. The case is submitted to Nero. Nero allows the wall to stand.


64. Martyrdom of James the Less, at Jerusalem. According to Josephus, he was stoned.

64. Herod's Temple at Jerusalem, is completed, and about 18,000 workmen are discharged from employment, many of whom become robbers.

65. GESSIUS FLORUS MADE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA,-a man worse than any of his predecessors. He was cruel, tyrannical, and insatiably avaricious,

Josephus says that at that time there were 3,000,000 Jews in Jerusalem.

Rome set on fire,-probably by order of Nero. He charges it on the Christians, several of whom are put to death by being enclosed in pitch and set on fire, to illuminate the gardens of the Emperor.


The probable year of the martyrdom of Paul and Peter, at Rome.

An edict of the emperor is issued, by which the Syrian and Greek inhabitants of Cæsarea are raised above the Jews. The dissatisfaction which this occasions is the first cause of the war. The Syrians and Greeks at Cæsarea sacrifice birds on the bottom of an earthen vessel, in order to irritate the Jews. A tumult is excited. Florus demands seventeen Talents from the Temple, for the use of the Emperor. The Jews are exasperated, and take possession of the lower city. They attack the castle of Antonia, and take it after two days.

The Christians in Jerusalem, seeing that a war is about to break out, retire to Pella, in the kingdom of Agrippa, beyond Jordan.

67. Vespasian is appointed by Nero to prosecute the Jewish war. Comes to Antioch, and forms a numerous army. Division in Jerusalem, and general revolt in Judea. Titus, the son of Vespasian, is sent to Alexandra, to collect an army, and to proceed to Palestine in aid of his father. Vespasian subdues Galilee.

Josephus besieged in Jotapata. Jotapata taken, and Josephus surrenders to Vespasian.

The Zealots in Jerusalem seize the Temple, and depose Theophilus from being High Priest, and put Phannias in his place. They send for the Idumeans to aid them. 68. Vespasian takes all the places of strength in Judea, around Jerusalem. Nero dies. Galba succeeds him.

69. Josephus set at liberty.

Eleazer, son of Simon, forms a third party, and makes himself master of the inner Temple.

Galba dies. Otho declared Emperor. Otho dies. Vitellius proclaimed Emperor by the German legions. Vespasian proclaimed by the army in the East. Vespasian secures the throne.

70. Titus marches against Jerusalem to besiege it. Approaches it some days before the Passover.

The factions in Jerusalem at first unite against the Romans, but afterwards divide again.

The Romans make a wall all around Jerusalem, to reduce it to famine.

July 17. The perpetual daily sacrifice ceases.

A Roman soldier sets the Temple on fire, notwithstanding the orders of Titus to the contrary.

71. Titus demolishes the Temple to its foundation, and also the city, reserving the towers of Hippicus, Phazael, and Mariamne.

Titus returns to Rome, to his father, Vespasian. A triumph decreed them, and the arch erected in Rome, which is still standing.

The Jewish war ended; Bassus sent into Judea as lieutenant, and Judea is sub dued.

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