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Being asked if he feared to meet death, he replied, "I fear only its pangs, which have been a dread to me through life." He frequently charged his physicians to conceal nothing from him, and when they discovered his last change approaching, not to fail announcing it to him. He often inquired of them, "have you no good news to communicate to me?"—"Do you see any prospect of my speedy release?" Frequently he observed, "I desire I may have patience to wait the time appointed for me; yet I cannot but long to depart, that I may be with Christ." The evening previous to his departure, when his pulse began to falter, one of his physicians asked him, “Would it afford you comfort, if you could consider this as the last night of your sufferings here?" He eagerly caught the import of the question, and apparently almost transported, exclaimed," Oh, I should rejoice in the prospect! Come, Lord Jesus, O come quickly!"-Early the next morning his room was thronged with his friends and parishioners of both sexes, most of them in tears; he readily recognized each individual, and when he could no longer speak, he tenderly embraced several of them in his dying arms, and kissing each, bade them adieu.

He evidently retained his recollection and reason, until a few moments of his last gasp, and while his hands or lips could move, he appeared to be in prayer.

He expired at 12 in the morning, of Tuesday, 13th March, 1810. His congregation at all times were affectionate and kind to him; were deeply impressed with his last sickness, and peculiarly attentive to him during the whole course of it. After his death, they requested the family to permit them to pay their last solemn respects to his memory, by interring his remains at their own charge.

A sermon was delivered at his interment, by Dr. Milledoler, from Matthew, 24th chapter, 45, 46, and 47th verses, to a very crouded audience.

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A Dissertation, in which the evidence for the Authenticity and Divine Inspiration of the Apocalypse is stated, and vindicated from the Objections of the late Professor J. D. Michaelis; by JOHN CHAPPEL WOODHOUSE, M. A.



(Continued from p. 430.)

HAVING ascertained the time in which the Apo

calypse was written, we may proceed to review the external evidence, which affects its authority. For we shall now be enabled to appreciate such testimony, by considering its approximation to the time when the book was published.

In the examination of this evidence, Michaelis has chosen to begin with that of Eusebius. But Eusebius wrote at an interval of more than two hundred Vol. III.-No. X.

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years from the time when the Apocalypse first appeared. In his days, doubts had arisen concerning the authenticity of the book-doubts which had no foundation on any external evidence, but which had been suggested by some writers from a consideration of its internal marks and character. The subject appears to have been in debate among the Christian critics in these times. Eusebius hesitated where to place the Apocalypse; whether among the undoubted books of the inspired Canon, or among those which were accounted spurious. He promises further information when the debate should be concluded; but we do not appear to have received it from him*.

I will begin, then, where we have more decided and authentic information; from Irenæus, whose competency to decide on this question we have considered. There are other testimonies, which, in point of time, are antecedent to this of Irenæus, but none so comprehensive, so positive, and direct. We shall review these with more advantage, after the consideration of this important evidence.

Irenæus, the auditor of Polycarp, and of other apostolical men, who had conversed with St. John, had the best means of information concerning the authenticity of the Apocalypse; and from the zeal which he shows, to discover the true reading of the passage in the Apocalypse, (by appeal to ancient and authentic copies, and to the testimony of apostolical men,) we may justly conclude that he took equal pains, and the same judicious methods, to assure himself concerning the writer of the bookt. But Irenæus, in many passages, ascribes this book to "John the Evangelist, the disciple of the Lord,

Euseb. H. E. lib. iii. c. 24, 25.

Irenæus, lib. v. c. 30. Euseb. H. E. lib. iii. c. 18.

"that John who leaned on his Lord's breast at the "last supper*." There are twenty-two chapters in the book of Revelation, and Irenæus quotes from thirteen of them, producing more than twenty-four passages, some of considerable length. The candid and judicious Lardner, after an examination of this evidence, says, "His, (Irenæus',) testimony for this "book is so strong and full, that, considering the age of Irenæus, he seems to put it beyond all "question, that it is the work of John the Apostle "and Evangelistt."

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The testimony of Irenæus may be supposed to extend from about thirty or forty years after the date of the Apocalypse, to about eighty years after the same period, viz. the year of our Lord 178, when he is said to have published the books which contain this testimony‡. But during this period of eighty years, other writers appear to have quoted, and acknowledged the Apocalypse. We will now, therefore, take a retrospect of their quotations and allusions, which will give additional weight to the testimony of Irenæus; while, from a recollection of his evidence, theirs also will derive support.

Ignatius is mentioned by Michaelis as the most ancient evidence that can be produced, respecting the authenticity of the Apocalypse. He lived in the apostolical times, and died by a glorious martyrdom in the year 107, as some writers state, though others have placed this event a few years later. He is commonly supposed to have made no mention of the Apocalypse; and this his silence, amounts, in the opinion of Michaelis, to a rejection of the book. “If Ignatius," says he, "had seen and acknow

*Irenæus, lib. iv. 37. 50. 27.

+ Cred. Gosp. Hist. art. Irenæus.
See Cave and Lardner.

"ledged the Apocalypse as the work of John the "Apostle, he would probably, when he wrote his

Episties to the Christian communities at Ephesus, "Philadelphia, and Smyrna, have reminded them of "the praises, which, according to Rev. ii. 1-7. 8"11. iii. 7-12. their Bishops had received from "Christ, more particularly when he addressed the "Church of Ephesus; because, in his Epistle to "that Church, he particularly reminds them of the praises bestowed on them by St. Paul."

The connexion of idea and train of thought, expected from Ignatius upon this occasion, is indeed natural, but it is not necessary; so that the want of it will not amount to any proof that Ignatius had never seen, or that he rejected, the Apocalypse. Ignatius was not a Bishop of any of the Seven Churches to which it was addressed, nor of any of the Churches in Asia properly so called, but of Antioch in Syria; and his familiarity with so obscure and mystical a book, would depend much upon his own turn of mind, and bent of study. We know that many eminent divines of our own times have been very little conversant with the Apocalypse; and we know that many of those, who are conversant with the book, are little inclined to quote it in their sermons and popular addresses; for they appeal to those books of Scripture with which they suppose their auditors most acquainted.

Besides, we are to take into our account the peculiar circumstances under which this Father of the Church wrote his Epistles, which are the only remains of his works. He was a prisoner, upon travel, guarded by a band of soldiers, whom for their ferocity he compares to leopards*, and by them hurried forward, in his passage from Antioch to Rome, there

* Ad Romanos, sect. v.

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